M-F: 9am-5pm (PST): (877) RAPID-10
Quick Movie - How to Learn in 24 Hours
  Rapid Learning Member Area:

Rapid Learning Member Login
Note: If you are a legacy user of chemistry24 members, please request a new login access to the premium server with your full name and old login email via vip@rapidlearningcenter.com
  Chemistry in 24 Hours

Are you taking a chemistry course or preparing for a chemistry exam? If you are learning chemistry now, the Chemistry Tips Weekly is for you--it is a one minute learning each week to the chemistry mastery, free for all students. The chemistry tips will include the follwing topics

  • Chemistry survival basics
  • Top ten confusions in chemistry
  • How to ace chemistry exams
  • Your professors' confessions
  • Problem-solving tips in chemisrty
  • Plus much more...
Enter your name and email address below and click "Subscribe" to have free Chemistry tips delivered to your inbox weekly.

Your Name*  

Note: For course links to launch, disable popup blockers or hold the ctrl key while clicking the link.

Bonus - Free Coaching for 3 Months :  Need help on your homework or exam questions? Get stuck on chemistry problems? Let Dr. Wayne and his team of faculty help you personally. Order one of our 24-hour rapid chemistry courses today and you will receive 3-month chemistry coaching ($297 value - free). Limited to first 250 students only. Grab yours today!

Conformational Analysis

Topic Review on "Title":

Basic Concepts
Conformational analysis deals with the shapes that molecules can adopt by rotations about single bonds.  These structures are called conformational isomers or conformers.  The following isomers cannot interconvert between each other without breaking bonds. Constitutional isomers have the same formula, but different connectivity. Stereoisomers have the same formula, the same connectivity, but different arrangement in space. Conformational isomers are interconvertable isomers of the same molecule that result from rotations of single bonds.  They interconvert constantly and are not separable.  Conformations of alkanes can best be viewed using either Newman projections or sawhorse representations.  A Newman Projection is an end-on view of 2 carbons attached by a sigma bond.  The front carbon is shown as the intersection of 3 bonds and the rear carbon is shown as a circle.  The substituents are attached accordingly.

Conformations of Ethane
Ethane can adopt either staggered or eclipsed conformations.  Staggered is the lowest energy conformer, with the hydrogens as far away from each other.  Eclipsed is the highest energy conformer and the least stable.  It is 3 kcal higher in energy than the staggered form due to repulsion between electrons in C-H bonds.

Conformations of Butane
As butane rotates about its sigma bond, four distinct conformational possibilities exist.  Staggered, or anti, where the methyl groups are farthest apart; eclipsed methyl-H interactions; gauche, where the methyl groups are adjacent; and eclipsed, or syn, where the methyl groups are eclipsed.

The interior angles of cycloalkanes deviate from the tetrahedral so strain develops.  Cyclopropane has a bond angle of 60o; Cyclobutane has a bond angle of 90o; Cyclopentane has a bond angle of 108o; Cyclohexane has a bond angle of 109.5o.

Conformations of Cyclohexane
Cyclohexane=s Newman Projection illustrates the staggered, low energy conformation that the chair form results. In addition to the chair, cyclohexane can also adopt the boat form by flipping one hydrogen up.  This form is higher in energy due to steric and eclipsing strain. By twisting the boat, cyclohexane adopts yet another form, the twist-boat, a result of relieving some of the boat=s strain.  Cyclohexane=s carbons have two substitution positions, axial and equatorial.  The axial is vertical and equatorial is parallel to the adjacent C-C bond in the chair.

Rapid Study Kit for "Title":
Flash Movie Flash Game Flash Card
Core Concept Tutorial Problem Solving Drill Review Cheat Sheet

"Title" Tutorial Summary :

Constitutional isomers, stereoisomers, and conformational isomers are defined.  The conformations of ethane are staggered and eclipsed.  The conformations of butane are anti, eclipsed methyl-hydrogen, gauche, and eclipsed.  The bond angles of the cycloalkanes are given.  Cyclohexane has the conformations of chair, boat, and twist-boat.  The carbons in cyclohexane can be equatorial or axial.

Tutorial Features:

This tutorial provides the comprehensive coverage of the chapter with easy introduction and simple illustration. It features:

  • Concept map showing interconnections of new concepts in this tutorial and those previously introduced.
  • Definition slides introduce terms as they are needed.
  • Visual representation of concepts.
  • Use of colors to emphasize points.
  • Compare and contrast key structures.
  • Energy diagrams of conformations.
  • Drawings to illustrate conformations.
  • Examples worked out step-by-step throughout the tutorial.
  • A concise summary is given at the conclusion of the tutorial.

"Title" Topic List:

Basic Concepts

  • Constitutional Isomers
  • Stereoisomers
  • Conformational Isomers

Conformations of Ethane

  • Staggered
  • Eclipsed

Conformations of Butane

  • Anti
  • Eclipsed Methyl-Hydrogen
  • Gauche
  • Eclipsed

Bond Angles of Cycloalkanes

Conformations of Cyclohexane

  • Chair
  • Boat
  • Twisted Boat

See all 24 lessons in college chemistry, including concept tutorials, problem drills and cheat sheets:
Teach Yourself Organic Chemistry Visually in 24 Hours

© 2015 Rapid Learning Center | Privacy Policy | Disclaimer | Affiliates
Chemistry Survival, Biology Survival, Physics Survival,
and Mathematics Survival Publishing are the divisions of Rapid Learning Inc.